She lives in conditions of increased social tension and psychological discomfort.
There are many judgments about the phenomenon of "youth". First of all, the subject of discussions is the problem of age limits.
The boundaries of youth age are defined by the peculiarities of training and entry of young men and women into productive life, which is fixed in the relevant regulations. They stipulate the right and opportunity of young people to pursue independent professional activities, start a family, and be responsible for their actions.
The UN and UNESCO consider young people to be between the ages of 17 and 25. Sociologists in some countries, the United States, for example, determine the period of youth from 12 to 24 years. In this case, in the same United States divide young people into "youth" (12 – 18 years) and "young adults" (18 – 24 years) . In the former USSR, in Ukraine, in particular, the age limits of young people were set at 14-29 years. It was traditionally believed that the age limit was from 16 to 30 years.
Many monographs show that in the 1970s and 1980s, due to acceleration and the complication of the socialization process, the age limits of young people expanded significantly and are now as follows: the lower one is between 14 and 16 years old; the upper – between 25 and 30 years, and in some countries up to 35 years. Such considerations are based on the fact that today the preparation of young people for work, achieving economic independence and independence from parental assistance takes more time than in previous decades.
This reflects the objective processes in the life and development of mankind: on the one hand, the task of early socialization of youth, https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ their involvement in labor practice at earlier stages, and on the other – increasing the limits of middle and old age, life expectancy in general, extending deadlines education and socio-political adaptation, stabilization of family and domestic status, etc. The Law of Ukraine "On Promotion of Social Formation and Development of Youth", as amended by the Law of March 23, 2004, states: "Youth is considered to be citizens aged 14 to 35" .
The concept of "youth" is largely based on the peculiarities of psychological development. According to scientists, at the age of about 14 a person begins to realize his social connections and his place in society. By the age of 18 the formation of basic psychophysical features of a person is practically completed, and by the age of 24 the processes of growth in the human body are completed and the social status of a person is formed, which, in particular, in Ukraine is connected with education, demobilization knowledge.
As a specific socio-demographic group, young people are characterized not only by age, but also by the place they occupy in the social structure of society, the peculiarities of social formation and development. This, on the one hand, distinguishes young people from other age groups in society, and on the other – allows them to objectively occupy a very unique place and play a role in all spheres of life.
Thus, in relation to the younger generation, we can talk about both its primary and secondary features. The primary (or main) include physiological, psychological, age and social characteristics. As for the secondary (secondary), they follow from the primary and are manifested depending on the type of community service, place of residence, social status.
Special attention should be paid to clarifying such an important concept as youth issues. There is an opinion that the social problems of youth are not any contradictions of their life, but only those that deepen and indicate the inadequacy of existing ways to solve them, and, consequently, lead to disorganizing processes in the system "society – youth" … Youth problems are divided into two types: for the first, it is about the increased demands of society to young people, for the second – about the personal expectations and aspirations of young people and the difficulties of their implementation .
In market conditions, young people face many new problems. However, compared to other social groups, she has the greatest social, professional and life prospects due to her age status. Due to their psychological characteristics, young people are able to more quickly than other social groups, to acquire new knowledge, professions needed during the transition to market relations and other processes of state formation.
Young people are not only the subject, the heir of the material and spiritual wealth of society, but also the creator of new, more progressive political-democratic social relations. To go further than its predecessors (older generation), it must be ready to reproduce and develop not only material but also political, spiritual values, culture of its nation, people. This is what makes it the main driving force of progressive socio-political development at the stage of formation of the Ukrainian political nation.
Youth state policy in independent Ukraine was initiated by the "Declaration on the General Principles of State Youth Policy in Ukraine" (1992) and the Law of Ukraine "On Promoting the Social Formation and Development of Youth in Ukraine" (1993). Then it was detailed in such laws as "On youth and children’s public organizations" (1998), "On education", "On employment" (both – 1991), "On physical culture and sports" (1994). ), "On Tourism" (1995), etc. The basic rights and responsibilities of young people, as well as other citizens of Ukraine, are enshrined in the Constitution of Ukraine (Article 53).
The main tasks of youth state policy in Ukraine are: creation of guaranteed socio-economic, political and other necessary starting conditions for the socialization of youth; realization of problems, inquiries, interests of youth – not at the expense of other social groups; coordination of efforts of state bodies, parties, organizations, associations, movements, social institutions to provide conditions for the development and self-realization of youth; social protection of groups of young people who are unable to solve their own problems or at least make their lives easier .
Clarifying the essence and content of the processes of life self-determination of a young person plays an important role in the development of an effective youth policy. These processes are divided into social, political, professional and economic self-determination.
In modern conditions, Ukrainian youth is one of the most economically vulnerable and socially and legally disenfranchised social communities. She lives in conditions of increased social tension and psychological discomfort. As a result, drug addiction, substance abuse, alcoholism, prostitution, "hazing" and other negative phenomena are spreading among young people.
Most young people face a difficult life choice for which they are not prepared either psychologically or organizationally. Therefore, the purpose of youth policy in this area is to strengthen the social status of youth in the structures of society that are renewed or radically changed, strengthening the legal, economic and social protection of the younger generation.
Regarding political self-determination, the alienation of young people from participation in governance is characterized by two interrelated tendencies:
increasing passivity and distrust of official authorities, where there are very few of their peers; increasing interest in informal purely youth groups and associations.
Therefore, the purpose of youth policy in this regard is to support the political certainty of youth, promote youth politicized prosocial formation, strengthen their constructive activity, consolidate efforts to strengthen the Ukrainian state, democratization and humanization of society. Given the general strategic focus of social policy on the integration of youth into society today, it is tactically important to promote disintegration trends in its environment for the formation of youth socio-political structures and their further inclusion in social structures on a new, democratic basis …
The implementation of market reforms requires certain transformations not only of the purely economic consciousness of society and its individuals, but also of stereotypes of economic and political behavior of people. These processes take place most successfully in the youth environment, because the consciousness of young people is not as orthodox as the consciousness of adults. Therefore, the problems of education, professional training, motivation of young people to work, entrepreneurship, politics, etc. become fundamentally important. After all, the image of Ukraine as a democratic state depends on this .
All countries undergoing a period of transformation are characterized by fierce competition in the labor market. It is not easy for young people in such conditions: without high qualifications and work experience it is quite difficult, and sometimes impossible, to compete with those who have them (mostly citizens aged 28 to 55).
Economic unrest in recent years has significantly affected the social situation of young people and their standard of living. Thus, 73% of young people surveyed are dissatisfied with the financial situation of their family, 44% – with living conditions, 42% – with how their family eats .
There is a significant inequality in opportunities to get general education, professional training, choose a job. There are many reasons: the social consequences of demographic, organizational, structural disparities in the country, which were formed historically and deepening in the economic crisis, growing social inequality, which especially affects young people, lack of strong state social policy and more. For example, rural boys and girls, in comparison with urban peers, have low opportunities to receive quality education, prestigious employment, meaningful leisure. All this causes a significant decrease in the share of young people in the rural population, their relocation to cities.
The purpose of youth policy in this area is to equalize starting positions, overcome discrimination against certain groups of young people, for which the development of lending to young people and young families can be practiced on favorable terms, provide benefits for employment of graduates in the first two years after graduation. including in the countryside) of services of vocational guidance, retraining and employment of youth, services of legal aid and counseling, etc.
Young people in Ukraine, as in other countries, despite limited choices, still find work to support themselves and their families.